17th century Belgian physicist, Jan Baptista
van Helmont, observed the growth of a willow tree and took various
measurements in one of his scientific experiments. First he weighed
the tree, then he weighed it a second time five years later, and
saw that it was now 75 kilograms heavier. Yet, the soil in the pot
in which the plant was grown lost only a few grams over the same
time period. The physicist van Helmont revealed in this experiment
that the soil in the pot was not the only reason for the growth
of the willow tree. Since the plant had used only a very small part
of the soil to grow, then it must have been receiving nutrition
from somewhere else.34
This occurrence, which van Helmont attempted to discover
in the 17th century, was photosynthesis, some stages of which are
still not understood in our own time. In other words, plants' producing
their own nutrition.
Plants do not just use the soil when producing their
own nutrition. Besides the minerals in the soil, they also use water
and the CO2 (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere. They take these
basic materials and process them in microscopic factories in their
leaves, thereby carrying out photosynthesis. Before examining the
various stages of photosynthesis, it will be useful to take a look
at leaves, which play an important role in this process.
The General Structure of Leaves
When studied from either the point of view of general
structure or of microbiology, it will be seen that leaves possess
planned, very complex, and detailed systems to produce as much energy
as possible. In order for leaves to produce energy they need to
take heat and carbon-dioxide from outside. All the systems in leaves
have been designed to take in these two things as easily as possible.
Let us first look at leaves' external structures.
The external surfaces of leaves are wide. This enables
the exchange of gases (such processes as the absorption of carbon-dioxide
and the release of oxygen, for instance) necessary for photosynthesis.
The leaves' flat and wide shape enables all the cells
to be near to the surface. Thanks to this, the exchange of gases
is made easier, and sunlight can reach all the cells which carry
out photosynthesis. Let us imagine what would happen otherwise.
If leaves were not flat, wide, and thin, but had any geometrical
shape or any random and meaningless one, they would be able to carry
out photosynthesis with only those regions directly in contact with
the sun. This would mean that plants would not be able to produce
enough energy and oxygen. The most important result of this for
living things would certainly be the emergence of an energy shortage
in the world.
The picture on the left
shows the lesser celandine flower, which resembles a miniature
radar station, as it tracks the sun across the sky. Like
all other plants, it turns to follow the direction of the
sun, so that it is better able to benefit from the sunlight.
The sunflowers in the picture below change direction in
line with the movement of the sun. Light-sensitive leaf
cells immediately establish the direction and move towards
And the specially "planned" systems in leaves do not
end there. The tissue of the leaf has another important property.
Thanks to this, phototropism, or turning towards the light, takes
place. This is the reason for plants' turning their leaves to the
direction of the Sun, which can be easily observed in pot plants.
In order to understand how these processes which are of vital importance,
take place, we shall have to take a brief look at the physiological
structure of the leaves.
If we look at a cross-section of a leaf, we will see
a four-layered structure.
The first is the epidermis layer, which does not include
chloroplasts. The role of the epidermis, which covers the top and
bottom of the leaf, is to protect the leaf from external influences.
The outermost part of the epidermis is covered with a protective
and waterproof waxy layer, called the cuticle. When we look at the
internal layers of the leaf, we see that it is generally made up
of two layers of cells. Of these, cells rich in chloroplast stand
in rows, with no gaps between them, making up the palisade layer,
which forms the internal tissue. This is the layer which carries
out photosynthesis. The spongy layer below this is the layer which
enables respiration. There are air pockets between the layers of
cells in this tissue. As we have seen, all these layers have very
important tasks in the construction of the leaf. This kind of organization
is of enormous importance from the point of view of photosynthesis,
as it enables the leaf to spread and distribute light better. As
well as this, the leaf's ability to carry out processes (such as
respiration and photosynthesis) increases with the size of the leaf
surface. For example, in dense tropical rainforests there is the
tendency for large-leaved plants to grow. There are very important
reasons for this. It is rather difficult for sunlight to reach all
parts of plants equally in tropical rainforests, where the trees
which make them up are all densely packed together and where it
rains hard and often. This is what makes it necessary to increase
the surface area of the leaf in order to catch the light. In those
areas where the sunlight enters with difficulty, it is of vital
importance for leaf surfaces to be large in order for plants to
produce nutriment. Thanks to this feature, tropical plants are exposed
to the sunlight in the most advantageous manner.
The general structures of
plants living in tropical regions and in deserts are very different,
as can be seen in this picture.
Small leaves, on the other hand, are found in dry, harsh
climates, because under these climatic conditions the basic point
of disadvantage is heat loss. And as the leaf surface becomes greater,
water evaporation, and thus heat loss, increases. For this reason,
the leaf surface, which catches the light, has been planned in the
most economic way for the plant to conserve water. In desert environments
the shrinking of leaves reaches exaggerated proportions. Cactus
plants have thorns instead of leaves, for instance. In these plants
photosynthesis is carried out by the fleshy stems themselves. The
stem moreover, is where water is stored.
But that is not enough to control water loss on its own.
Because no matter how small the leaf is, the presence of the minute
pores in the epidermis called the stomata means that water loss
continues. For this reason the existence of a mechanism to compensate
for evaporation is essential. And plants do have a way of regulating
too much evaporation. This is done by controlling the degree of
openness of the stomata, either widening or constricting them as
Trying to capture light to carry out photosynthesis is
not the leaves' only task. It is also important for them to take
carbon-dioxide from the air and direct it to the areas where photosynthesis
is carried out. Plants do this by means of the pores on their leaves.
The Stoma: A Flawless Design
These microscopic pores on the surface of leaves have
the role of enabling the transfer of light and water and of taking
the CO2 necessary for photosynthesis from the atmosphere. The stomata
possess a structure which allows them to open or close as necessary.
When they open, the oxygen and water vapour between the cells of
the leaf are exchanged for the carbon-dioxide required for photosynthesis.
In this way, surplus production is given off, and the required substances
are absorbed to be made use of.
One of the interesting aspects of the stomata is that
they are generally found on the underside of leaves. In this way
the harmful effects of sunlight are reduced to a minimum. If the
stomata, which give off the water in the plant, were on the tops
of the leaves in great numbers, they would be exposed to sunlight
for long periods. In such a situation, the stomata would continually
be giving off the water in them because of continuous exposure to
heat, in which case the plant would die of excessive water loss.
Thanks to this special feature, the plant is prevented from being
harmed by water loss.
The stomata are formed by sausage-shaped guard cells.
Their concave structures permit the opening of the pores, which
in turn allow the exchange of gases between the leaf and the atmosphere.
The opening of the pores depends upon external conditions (light,
heat, moisture, and carbon-dioxide levels) and the internal state
of the plant, particularly its water levels. The pore's opening
or closing regulates the exchange of gases and water.
There are very fine details in the structure of the pores,
which have been designed with all external factors in mind. As we
know, moisture levels, the degree of heat, gas levels, air pollution
always change. Leaf pores possess structures which can adapt to
all these changing conditions.
We can explain all of this with an example. In plants
such as sugar cane and cornplant, which are exposed to heat and
dry air for a long time, the pores stay completely or partially
closed all day in order to conserve water. These plants need to
absorb carbon-dioxide in the daytime for photosynthesis. Under normal
conditions, the pores would have to remain as open as possible.
But this is impossible. Because in that case the plant would continuously
lose moisture from its pores and shortly die. For this reason, the
pores need to remain closed.
But this problem, too, has been solved. Some plants,
which live in hot climates, have a carbon dioxide pump which sucks
the gas more efficiently out of the air into the leaf. These plants
thus use chemical pumps to absorb carbon dioxide in their leaves,
even if their pores are closed.35
If these pumps were absent for a time, the plant would be unable
to produce any nutrients, because it could not take in any carbon-dioxide,
and would therefore die. This is a sign that these complex chemical
pumps could not have come about as the result of a series of coincidences
over time. This system in plants can perform effectively only when
all its components are together at once. For which reason there
is no chance that the stomata could have evolved and emerged as
the result of coincidences. The stomata, with their exceedingly
special construction, have been planned, in other words created,
to perform their tasks in the most sensitive manner possible.
The Evolutionist View of Leaf Development
As we have seen, there are highly complex systems squeezed
into a tiny green body. These complex systems in leaves have been
functioning perfectly for millions of years. So how did it happen
that these systems came to fit into such a tiny area? How did the
complex design in leaves come about? Is it possible that such a
unique and perfect design came about by itself?
If we ask the defenders of the theory of evolution, their
answer will be the same as always. They will put forward explanations
and assumptions that have no logic and which are mutually contradictory.
They will try to answer the question of how innumerable varieties
of plants, trees, flowers, sea plants, grasses, and fungi "came
about"-but without success.
When the theories put forward by evolutionists regarding
the development of leaves are examined, they will be seen to be
full of meaningless, even ridiculous, claims. One of them, the telome
theory suggests that the leaf arose through repeated complex branchings
and fusions of stem systems. 36
Let us now consider the questions which arise from this baseless
- How did these branchings and fusions come about?
- As the result of what coincidences did they turn into
leaves, with their totally different construction and planning?
- How did it happen that the thousands, nay, the millions
of varieties of plants, flowers, trees, and grasses emerged from
these primitive plants?
Evolutionists have no logical and scientific answers
to any of these questions. As on every subject, evolutionists can
produce no other explanation regarding the coming into being of
plants than imaginary scenarios based entirely on imagination.
According to another theory on the subject (the enation
theory), the leaf evolved through simple stem outgrowths (enations)
Let us once more examine the questions which arise from
How did it happen that enations, or flaps of tissue,
emerged in certain places in the body to turn into leaves?
And later, how did they turn into leaves? And, not just
any leaves, but leaves with flawless constructions in countless
Let us go back a little. How did the stems, which these
enations emerge from, come into existence?
There is no scientific answer from evolutionists to questions
of this sort.
What evolutionist theories actually want to explain is,
in essence, as follows: Plants emerged as the result of events which
came about by coincidence. Stems and branches came about by coincidence,
chlorophyll came to be in chloroplasts by another coincidence, the
different layers in leaves are another coincidence, once coincidence
followed on the heels of another, and eventually, leaves emerged,
with their flawless and particular construction.
At this point, the fact that all these structures in
leaves, which are claimed to have come about by coincidence, must
have come about at the same time is a truth which cannot and must
not be ignored. According to evolutionists, all the mechanisms in
the leaf arose from coincidences gradually over time. And the same
evolutionist logic predicts that organs or systems which are not
used will eventually disappear. Since all the mechanisms in leaves
are interlinked, it makes no sense to say that one of them came
about by coincidence. Because according to the second stage of evolutionist
logic, this mechanism would have already disappeared, because it
served no purpose. For this reason, in order for the plant to stay
alive, all the complex systems in its roots, stems, and leaves have
to exist at one and the same time.
As with every living creature in the world, plants were
brought into being with flawless systems, and, from the moment they
were created, have come down to today, with no changes in their
features. From the falling of the leaves, to their turning themselves
towards the sun, from their green colour to the woody nature of
their bodies, from the existence of their roots, to the emergence
of their fruits - all their structures are flawless. Even with today's
technology it would be impossible to imitate or reproduce even similar
systems (the process of photosynthesis, for instance).
This complexity is one of the proofs that leaves could
not have emerged by chance. Leaves possess specially planned structures,
to meet plants' needs to produce food and to do respiration. The
existence of special planning proves the existence of a planner.
The details and perfection of the planning introduce to us the planner's
knowledge, intelligence, and art. There is no doubt that it is God,
the Lord of all the Worlds, who created leaves with their perfect
The Miracle of Photosynthesis
The Earth is a planet specially designed to support life.
The Earth provides an environment that can sustain life, thanks
to the many very sensitive balances set up on it, from the gas levels
in the atmosphere to its distance from the sun, from the existence
of mountains to the presence of drinking water, from the wide variety
of plants to the temperature of the Earth.
If the components which make up life are to survive,
both the physical and the biological balances have to be maintained.
For example, in the same way as gravity is indispensable for living
things to live on the ground, so the substances plants produce are
just as necessary for the survival of life.
As we indicated earlier, the process which plants carry
out to produce these organic substances is called photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis, which can be summarised as plants'
producing their own food, is what makes them different from other
living things. What makes this difference is the existence of structures
in plant cells (unlike human or animal cells), which can make direct
use of sunlight. With the help of these structures, plant cells
turn the energy from the sun, which human beings and animals absorb
by means of food, into energy and store it, again by special means.
In this way, the process of photosynthesis is completed.
Of course, it is not the plant itself which carries out
this process, nor the leaves, nor even the totality of the plant
cells. It is a small organ found in plant cells called the "chloroplast,"
which gives plants their green colour and carries out these processes.
Chloroplasts are one thousandth of a millimetre in size, for which
reason they can be seen only through a microscope. The wall of the
chloroplast, which plays such an important role in photosynthesis,
is just one hundred millionth of a metre in size. As we can see,
these figures are extremely small, and all the processes take place
in this microscopic environment. This is one of the astounding features
The Chloroplast: A Factory Full of Secrets
In a chloroplast there are various formations such as
thylakoids, internal and external membranes, stromata, enzymes,
ribosomes, RNA, and DNA to bring about photosynthesis. These formations
are all interlinked, both structurally and in terms of their functions,
and each one has very important functions which it carries out within
its own body. For example, the chloroplast's outer membrane regulates
the flow of materials into and out of each chloroplast. The internal
membrane system consists of flattened sacs, or thylacoids which
resemble discs. Pigment molecules (chlorophylls) and enzymes essential
for photosynthesis are embedded in the thylakoids. Many of the thylakoids
are stacked, forming structures called "grana," which allow maximum
absorption of sunlight. This means the plant absorbing more light
and being able to carry out more photosynthesis.
Surrounding the thylakoids is a lipid solution, the "stroma,"
which contains other enzymes as well as DNA, RNA, and ribosomes.
With the DNA and ribosomes they possess, chloroplasts both reproduce
and produce certain proteins. (49)
What carries out photosynthesis in
green plants is an organelle in the plant cell, called
the chloroplast. The chloroplast shown magnified in
the picture is really only one thousandth of a millimetre
in size. Inside it are a number of subsidiary organelles
for the photosynthesis process. The process of photosynthesis,
which comes about in several stages, some of which
are still not fully understood, takes place at great
speed in this microscopic factory.
Another important point in photosynthesis is that all
these processes take place in a period of time so short as to be
unobservable. The thousands of chlorophylls found in chloroplasts
simultaneously produce their reaction to sunlight in the unbelievably
short time of a thousandth of a second.
While scientists describe the photosynthesis event in
chloroplasts as a long chemical chain reaction, they are unable
to explain some parts of what happens in this chain on account of
that speed, and simply look on in amazement. But it is clearly understood
that photosynthesis involves two stages. These are known as the
"light reactions" and the "dark reactions."
The Light Reactions
Radiations from the sun form a continuous series. The
range of radiations that organisms detect with their eyes - visible
light - is roughly the same range plants use. Shorter wavelengths
(blue light) are more energetic than longer wavelengths (red light).
Pigments are substances that absorb visible light; different pigments
absorb different wavelengths. Chlorophyll, the main pigment of photosynthesis,
absorbs light primarily in the blue and red regions of the visible
spectrum. Green light is not appreciably absorbed by chlorophyll;
instead, it is reflected. Plants usually appear green because their
leaves reflect most of the green light that strikes them.38
The process of photosynthesis starts with the absorption
of sunlight by these pigments, which make plants look green. But
how do the chlorophylls begin the process of photosynthesis by absorbing
sunlight? In order to answer this question it will be useful to
first of all examine the structure of the thylakoid, which is found
inside the chloroplasts and contains the chlorophylls within it.
There are two types of chlorophylls, "chlorophyll-a"
and "chlorophyll-b." The light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
begin when chlorophyll a and accessory pigments absorb light. As
we can see in the picture where the detailed structure of the thylakoid
is explained, chlorophyll molecules, accessory pigments, and associated
electron acceptors are organized into units called photosystems.
There are two types of photosystems, Photosystem I and Photosystem
II. The light energy is transferred to a special "chlorophyll-a"
molecule called the reaction center. The energy obtained from the
absorption of sunlight gives rise to the loss of energy-rich electrons
in the reaction centres. These energy-rich electrons are used in
subsequent stages to obtain oxygen from water.
At this stage there is a flow of electrons. The electrons
lost by "Photosystem I" are replaced by electrons lost from "Photosystem
II." Electrons lost by "Photosystem II" are replaced by electrons
removed from the water. As a result, water is separated into oxygen,
protons, and electrons.
The chlorophyll substance in leaves is
found in a structure called the thylakoid in the chloroplasts.
When studying the above plan of a thylakoid, it must not be
forgotten that this is just a very small part of an organelle
called the chloroplast, itself only one thousandth of a millimetre
in size. It is of course impossible for the detailed design
in thylakoids to have come about by coincidence. This structure,
like everything else in the universe, was created by God.
At the end of the electron flow, the electrons, along
with the protons from water are transported to the inside of the
thylakoid and combine with a hydrogen-carrier molecule NADP+ (nicotinamide
adenine dinucleotide phosphate). The molecule NADPH results from
As electrons flow from carrier to carrier along the electron
transport system, a proton gradient is established across the thylakoid
membrane; the potential energy of the gradient is used to form ATP
(an energy package which the cell will use in its own processes).
At the end of all these processes, the energy which plants need
to create their own nutrition is ready for use.
These events, which we have tried to summarise as a chain
reaction, are only the first half of the photosynthesis process.
Energy is necessary for plants to produce nutrition. For this to
be obtained, the other processes are fully completed, thanks to
a specially planned "special fuel production plan."
The Dark Reactions
These processes, the second stage in photosynthesis,
known as the Dark Reactions or Calvin Cycle, take place in the regions
of the chloroplast known as "stroma." The energy-charged ATP and
NADPH molecules produced by the light reactions are used to reduce
carbondioxide to organic carbon. The end-product of the dark reactions
is used as a starting material for other organic compounds needed
by the cell.
It took scientists hundreds of years to understand the
main lines of this chain reaction which we have summarised here.
Organic carbon, which cannot be produced in any other manner in
the world, have been produced by plants for millions of years. This
molecule is the energy source for all living systems.
During the photosynthesis reactions, enzymes and other
structures with different features and tasks work in complete cooperation.
No matter what highly developed equipment it may have, no laboratory
in the world can work with the capacity plants have. Whereas in
plants all these processes take place in a tiny organ just one thousandth
of a millimetre in size. The diverse formulae have been implemented
for millions of years, with no confusion of all the variety of plants,
no mistakes in the order of reactions, and no confusion in the quantities
of basic materials used in photosynthesis.
The process of photosynthesis also has another aspect.
The complicated processes outlined above lead plants at the end
of photosynthesis to produce the glucose and oxygen essential to
living things. These products made by plants are used by humans
and animals as food. By means of these foods, they store energy
in their cells and use it. By virtue of this system, all living
things make use of the Sun's energy.
Like Everything Necessary for Photosynthesis, Sunlight
Has Also Been Specially Arranged
While all this is going on in the chemical factory, the
features of the energy which will be used in the processes have
been identified. When the photosynthesis process is looked at from
this point of view, it will be realised in what fine detail the
processes which take place have been planned, so that the features
of light energy from the Sun may meet the energy requirement of
the chloroplast to produce the correct chemical reactions.
In order to completely understand this fine balance,
let us examine the functions and importance of sunlight in photosynthesis.
Was sunlight arranged specially for photosynthesis? Or
are plants flexible enough to make use of any light that comes their
way and initiate photosynthesis with it?
Overview of Photosynthesis
Plants are able to carry out photosynthesis thanks to
the sensitivity of chlorophylls to light energy. The important point
here is that chlorophyll substances use light of a particular wavelength.
The sun rays have just the right wavelength needed by the chlorophyll.
In other words, there is total harmony between sunlight and chlorophyll.
In his book, The Symbiotic Universe, the American astronomer
George Greenstein has this to say about that flawless harmony:
Chlorophyll is the molecule that accomplishes photosyhthesis…
The mechanism of photosynthesis is initiated by the absorption of
sunlight by a chlorophyll molecule. But in order for this to occur,
the light must be of the right color. Light of the wrong color won't
do the trick.
A good analogy is that of television set. In order
for the set to receive a given channel it must be tuned to that
channel; tune it differently and the reception will not occur.
It is the same with photosynthesis, the Sun functioning as the
transmitter in the analogy and the chlorophyll molecule as the
receiving TV set. If the molecule and the Sun are not tuned to
each other - tuned in the sense of color - photosynthesis will
not occur. As it turns out, the Sun's color is just right. 39
In short, in order for photosynthesis to take place,
all of the conditions have to be just right at that moment. It will
be useful now to turn to another question that might come to mind.
Could there have been any change over time in the order of the processes
or the tasks carried out by the molecules?
One of the answers to this question that defenders of
the theory of evolution, who claim that the sensitive balances in
nature came about as the result of coincidences, is, "If there had
been a different environment, plants would have initiated photosynthesis
in that environment too, because living things would have adapted
to it." But this is completely faulty logic. Because in order for
plants to engage in photosynthesis they have to be in harmony at
that moment with the light from the sun. George Greenstein, an astronomer
who is also an evolutionist, reveals that this logic is faulty in
One might think that a certain adaptation has been
at work here: the adaptation of plant life to the properties of
sunlight. After all, if the Sun were a different temperature could
not some other molecule, tuned to absorb light of a different
colour, take the place of chlorophyll? Remarkably enough the answer
is no, for within broad limits all molecules absorb light of similar
colours. The absorption of light is accomplished by the excitation
of electrons in molecules to higher energy states, and the general
scale of energy required to do this is the same no matter what
molecule you are discussing. Furthermore, light is composed of
photons, packets of energy, and photons of the wrong energy simply
cannot be absorbed... As things stand in reality, there is a good
fit between the physics of stars and that of molecules. Failing
this fit, however, life would have been impossible. 40
Photosynthesis Cannot be a Coincidence
Despite all of these obvious truths, let us see that
this system could not have come about by chance by asking some questions
one more time for those who continue to uphold the validity of the
theory of evolution. Who is it who planned this incomparable mechanism,
which is set up in a microscopically small area? Can we imagine
that plant cells planned such a system, in other words that plants
actually thought it up? Of course we cannot. Because it is out of
the question for plant cells to plan and think. It is not the plant
cell itself which created the flawless system we see when we look
inside it. So, in that case, is it a product of a unique human intelligence?
No, it is not. It is not human beings who established the most unbelievable
factory in the world in a space of just a thousandth of a millimetre.
In fact, human beings cannot even see what is going on inside this
When looked at together with the claims of the evolutionists,
it will be seen why the answer to all these questions is "No," and
the question of how plants came about will be made more apparent.
The theory of evolution claims that all living things
evolved by stages, and that there was a development from the simple
to the complex. Let us consider whether this is correct or not by
seeing if we can limit the number of parts which exist within the
process of photosynthesis. For example, let assume that there are
100 elements necessary for the process of photosynthesis to come
about (although in reality there are a great many more). Continuing
our assumption, let us imagine that of these 100 elements, one or
two came into existence, as the evolutionists claim, by coincidence,
and assume that they were self-generated. In that case there would
be a waiting period of millions of years for the rest of the elements
to come about. Even for those elements which did develop to join
together would serve no purpose in the absence of the others. It
would be impossible to expect the rest of the elements to form when
the system will not function in the absence of even one of its constituent
parts. For this reason the claim that such a complicated system
as photosynthesis could have come about by the gradual and coincidental
development of its constituent parts as they added themselves to
one another-as evolutionists propose-is inconsistent with reason
and logic, as are similar claims about all systems in living things.
We can see the pointlessness of this claim by having
another brief look at some of the stages in photosynthesis. First
of all, in order for photosynthesis to take place, all the enzymes
and systems have to be present in the plant's cells at the same
time. The length of each process and quantity of enzymes have to
be arranged absolutely correctly each single time. Because even
the smallest hitch in the reactions which take place-the length
of the process for instance, or a minute change in the amount of
light that enters or of the basic materials-will spoil the product
that emerges at the end of the reaction and render it useless. Even
if one of the elements we have described is missing, the whole system
will be rendered non-functional.
At this point there arises the question of how all these
non-functioning elements survived until the complete system was
in place. It is also a known truth that as the size of a structure
decreases, the intelligence and quality of engineering in its systems
increase. When a mechanism reduces in size, it further displays
the power of the technology used in it. A comparison between the
cameras of our day and those of years ago will make this truth more
apparent. This truth increases the importance of the flawless structure
in leaves. How is it possible that plants are able to carry out
photosynthesis in these microscopic factories, when human beings
cannot do so in their huge ones?
Evolutionists are able to offer no credible answers to
these and other questions. Instead, they make up various imaginary
scenarios. The common tactic resorted to in these scenarios is to
swamp the subject in demagoguery and confusing technical terms and
explanations. They attempt to conceal the "Truth of Creation," which
is clearly to be seen in all living things by using the most complicated
terms possible. Instead of answering the questions of why and how,
they set out detailed information and technical concepts, and then
add that this is a result of evolution at the end.
Nevertheless, most of the time even the most hardened
supporters of evolution cannot conceal their amazement in the face
of the miraculous systems in plants. We can cite one of Turkey's
evolutionist professors, Ali Demirsoy, as an example of this. Professor
Demirsoy stresses the miraculous processes in photosynthesis, and
makes the following admission in the face of the complexity of the
Photosynthesis is a rather complicated event, and it
seems impossible that it should happen in a tiny organelle inside
a cell. Because it is impossible for all the levels to come about
at once, and meaningless for them to emerge separately. 41
The flawless mechanisms at work in the process of photosynthesis
have been present in every plant cell that has ever existed. This
process takes place even in what we see as the most ordinary piece
of grass. In a given plant, the same substances in the same amounts
always play their part in the reaction, and the same products are
produced. The sequence and speed of the reaction is the same. This
applies to all plants which carry out photosynthesis, without exception.
It is illogical, of course, to ascribe capabilities such
as thought and decision to plants. But, at the same time, to explain
this system, which exists in all green plants and functions to perfection,
by saying, "It developed from a series of coincidences," defies
At this point we are faced with an obvious truth. Photosynthesis,
an extraordinarily complex system, was consciously designed, in
other words, it was created by God. These mechanisms have existed
from the moment plants came into being. The introduction of such
flawless systems into such a tiny space demonstrates to us the power
of the designer.
The Results of Photosynthesis
The results of photosynthesis, which takes place through
chloroplasts are very important for all living things in the world.
Living things are the reason for the continuous increase
in carbon-dioxide in the air and the rise in air temperatures. As
a result of the respiration of human beings, animals, and micro-organisms
in the soil, every year some 92 billion tons of carbon-dioxide enter
the atmosphere, and some 37 billion more during plant respiration.
Furthermore, the amount of carbon-dioxide given off to the atmosphere
from the fuel used by heating systems in factories and homes and
in transportation is at least another 18 billion tons. This means
that, during the circulation of carbon-dioxide on the land, some
147 billion tons are given off. This shows that the carbon-dioxide
levels in the world are constantly rising.
Unless this rise is compensated for, the ecological equilibrium
will be disturbed. For example, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere
may go down, temperatures may rise, as a result of which the glaciers
might start to melt. Some areas would then be covered with water,
and others would turn into deserts. All of this would endanger the
survival of life on earth. But none of this happens. Because, with
the process of photosynthesis, plants continually produce oxygen
and maintain the equilibrium.
The temperature of the earth does not keep changing,
because plants help maintain a balance. Plants absorb 129 billion
tons of carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere for the purposes of
cleaning every year, and this is a most important figure. We said
that the amount of carbon-dioxide given off to the atmosphere
was 147 billion tons. The 18 billion ton deficiency in the carbon-dioxide/oxygen
cycle on the land is made good by a different carbon-dioxide/oxygen
cycle in the oceans.42
It is thanks to the process of photosynthesis that plants
absorb carbon-dioxide from the atmosphere (to convert into nutrition)
and release oxygen, so that the natural equilibrium-of vital importance
to life on earth-is never upset.
There is no other natural source which makes good any
deficiency of oxygen in the atmosphere. For this reason plants are
indispensable to the maintenance of the systems in all living things.
Nutrients in Plants Emerge as the Result of Photosynthesis
Another essential product of this perfect system is a
food source for living things. In that sense, the products of photosynthesis
are extremely important for plants themselves and for other living
things. Both animals and plants obtain the energy they need to live
by consuming these foods produced by plants. Animal-product foods
can exist only by virtue of products obtained from plants.
If we imagined that the events we have been discussing
took place not in the leaves but in some other place, what kind
of set-up would we imagine? Would it be a multi-functional factory
with tools which served to create nutriments from the carbon-dioxide
from the air, which also had machines with the capacity to make
oxygen and release it, and which contained systems capable of maintaining
One would certainly not imagine something the size of
the palm of one's hand. As we have seen, leaves, the possessors
of perfect mechanisms, maintain temperature, allow evaporation,
and at the same time produce food and prevent water loss. They are
a wonder of design. All these processes we have listed take place
not in different structures, but in just one leaf (of whatever size),
moreover in a single cell of a single leaf, and what is more, all
The foregoing facts all point to the functions of plants,
all being blessings that have been created with the aim of serving
living things. Most of these blessings have been designed for mankind
itself. Let us take a look at our environment and what we eat. Let
us look at the bone-dry stem of the grapevine, at its thin roots.
Fifty or 60 kilos of grapes come from this structure which can easily
break with a single pull. Grapes-whose colour, smell, and taste
have been specially designed to appeal to man.
Plants are the most important factor in maintaining the
world's ecological balance. We can easily see this by
means of a comparison. For example, all living creatures
in the world take in oxygen and give off only carbon-dioxide,
heat, and water vapour to the atmosphere. Also, as a result
of processes such as production in factories and transportation,
certain quantities of carbon-dioxide and heat are diffused
into the air. In the opposite way to all other living
things, plants take carbon-dioxide and heat from the air.
They use these two things to carry out photosynthesis,
continuously giving off oxygen to the air. To claim that
such a sensitive equilibrium came about by coincidence,
would be unintelligent and unscientific.
Let us consider the watermelon. This water-filled fruit
emerges from the bone-dry ground at just the time when a person
needs it, in the summer. Let us consider that wonderful watermelon
smell and that famous watermelon taste, which it maintains in an
expert manner from the moment it emerges. Then let us think about
the processes in a perfume-manufacturing factory, from the creation
of the scent to its maintenance. Let us compare the quality of the
product from the factory and the scent of the watermelon. While
manufacturing scents, people carry out quality controls all the
time, but there is no need for any quality controls to conserve
the scents in fruits. Melons, watermelons, oranges, lemons, pineapples,
coconuts, all possess the same unique scents and flavours, wherever
they may be in the world, without exception. A melon never smells
like a watermelon, nor a mandarin like a strawberry: although they
all emerge from the same ground, their smells never get mixed up.
They all always conserve their original fragrances.
When one thinks of the tastes, smells,
and flavours of fruit and vegetables, one wonders how such
a variety could have come about. Of course, it is not the
grapes, watermelons, melons, kiwi fruit, and pineapples themselves,
which all come from the same soil and use the same water and
minerals, which form the different tastes and scents. These
incomparable flavours, shapes, and tastes have been given
to them by God.
Let us examine the structure of this fruit in more detail.
The sponge-like cells of the watermelon are able to retain large
quantities of water. For this reason a large part of the watermelon
consists of water. But this water is not all in one place, it is
evenly distributed all over the watermelon. Bearing in mind the
force of gravity, this water should mostly be in the bottom part
of the fruit, with the top part being dry and fleshy. Whereas no
such thing happens in the watermelon. Water is evenly distributed
inside it, and the same applies to its sugar, taste, and smell.
And there is never any mistake in the setting out of
the rows of seeds. Every seed carries the code of that watermelon
which will be carried down to other generations thousands of years
later. Every seed is coated in a special, protective covering. This
is a perfect design, prepared with the intention of preventing any
damage to the information inside it. The covering is neither hard
nor soft, it has just the right amount of hardness and flexibility.
Underneath the outer covering is a second layer. The areas where
the upper and lower parts join are clear. These places are specially
designed so that the seeds can cling on. Thanks to this construction,
the seed only opens once it has reached the appropriate moisture
and temperature levels. That flat, white part in the seed later
germinates, turning into a green leaf.
Let us also consider the structure of the watermelon
rind. What creates this smooth rind and the waxy coating on top
of it is again the cells. For this waxy coating to form, every one
of the cells has to give off the same level of waxy substance in
the rind. Furthermore, what makes the rind smooth and round is the
perfection in the layout of the watermelon cells. For this to happen,
each cell must know its place. Otherwise there could never be this
smoothness and perfect roundness of the outside of the watermelon.
As we can see, there is a flawless harmony between the cells which
go to make up the watermelon.
We can consider all the plants in the world in the same
manner. At the end of such an examination we will arrive at the
conclusion that plants have been designed for human beings and other
living things, or in other words, created.
God, the Lord of all the worlds, made food for all living
things, and created every one with different tastes, smells, and
And (He has made subservient to you) also the things
of varying colours He has created for you on the earth. There is
certainly a Sign in that for people who pay heed. (Surat an-Nahl:
And We sent down blessed water from the sky and
made gardens grow by it and grain for harvesting and soaring date-palms
laden with clusters of dates, as provision for Our servants; by
it We brought a dead land to life. Such shall be the Resurrection.
(Surah Qaf: 9-11)
Plants Are Cool, But Why?
A plant and a piece of stone in the same place do not
warm up to the same degree, even though they receive the same amount
of solar energy. Every living creature will experience negative
effects if it stays out in the sun. So what is it that enables plants
to be minimally affected by the heat? How do plants manage this?
Why does nothing happen to plants even in great heat, even when
its leaves burn in the sunshine all through a hot summer? Apart
from their own internal warming, plants also take in heat from the
outside and maintain the temperature balance in the world. And they
themselves are exposed to this heat while carrying out this heat-retention
process. So, instead of being affected by the ever-increasing temperature,
how is it that plants can continue to take heat in from outside?
Considering that plants are constantly under the sun,
it is natural that they should need more water than other living
things. Plants also constantly lose water by the perspiration on
their leaves. As we touched on in earlier sections, in order to
prevent such water loss, the leaves, the surface of which are always
turned towards the sun, are generally covered in a waterproof protective
wax known as the cuticle. In this way water loss on the upper surfaces
of leaves is prevented.
But what about the under surfaces? Because the plant
loses water from there, the pores whose function is to enable the
diffusion of gases are generally on the bottom surfaces. The opening
and closing of the pores regulates the plant's taking in enough
carbon-dioxide and giving off enough oxygen, but not in such a way
as to lead to water loss.
In addition to this, plants disperse heat in different
ways. There are two important heat dispersal mechanisms in plants.
By means of one of these, if the temperature of a leaf is higher
than that around it, air circulates from the leaf towards the outside.
Air changes stemming from heat distribution lead to the air rising,
because hot air is less dense than cold. For this reason the hot
air on the surface of the leaf rises, leaving the surface. Because
cold air is denser, it descends to the surface of the leaf. In this
way heat is reduced and the leaf is cooled down. This process goes
on for as long as the temperature on the surface of the leaf is
greater than that outside. In very dry environments, such as deserts,
this situation never changes.
By means of the other heat dispersal system of plants,
leaves can perspire by giving off water vapour. By virtue of this
perspiration, the evaporation of water permits the plant to cool
above picture shows the perspiration on a plant called Alchemilla,
in extremely humid conditions. Plants in such environments
give off water via their leaves, both to cool down by giving
off heat and to regulate humidity levels.
These dispersal systems have been designed to suit the
conditions where the plant lives. Every plant possesses the systems
it needs. Could this exceedingly complicated dispersal system have
come about by coincidence? In order to answer this question, let
us consider desert plants. The tissues of desert plants are often
very thick and fleshy. They are designed to conserve rather than
evaporate water. It would be lethal for these plants' heat dispersal
systems to work by means of evaporation, because in a desert it
is not possible to compensate for water loss. Although these plants
can disperse heat by both methods, they only use one, which is also
the only way for them to survive. Their design has obviously been
carried out with desert conditions in mind. It is not possible to
explain this by coincidences.
If plants did not possess these cooling-down systems,
being under the sun for even a few hours would be lethal for them.
One minute of direct sunlight in the afternoon can heat one centimetre
of leaf surface by as much as 37 degrees centigrade. Plant cells
start to die when the temperature rises to 50 to 60 degrees, in
other words, just three minutes of direct sunlight in the afternoon
would be enough for a plant to die.43
But plants are protected from lethal temperatures by means of these
two mechanisms. The evaporation which plants also use in heat dispersal
is also very important from the point of view of regulating the
level of water vapour in the air. This evaporation in plants enables
high levels of vapour to be released to the atmosphere regularly.
This activity of plants could be described as a kind of water engineering.
The trees in a thousand square metre area of forest can comfortably
put 7.5 tons of water into the atmosphere.44 Trees
are like giant water pumps, passing the water in the soil through
their bodies and sending it into the atmosphere. This is a most
important task. If they did not possess such a feature, the water
cycle on the Earth would not happen as it does today, which would
mean the destruction of the balances in the world.
Although their stems are covered with a wooden, dry
substance, plants can pass tons of water through their bodies.
They take this water from the soil, and after using it in various
parts of the high technology factories in their bodies, give it
back to nature as purified water. At the same time that they do
this, they also separate part of their intake of water with the
aim of using the hydrogen in the nutrition production process.45
What we have described as the perspiration in leaves
or the moisture in the areas where the trees live, actually occur
as the result of activities which are essential to the survival
of life on the planet.
What we see in these processes of plants is a system
of such perfection that it would run down and stop working if even
one part of it were taken away. There is no doubt that it was God,
the Compassionate and the Merciful, who is aware of all creation,
who designed this system and flawlessly installed it in plants.
He is God - the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of
Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the
heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.
(Surat al-Hashr: 24)
The Leaf: the Smallest Cleaning Tool
The services that plants carry out for other living things
are not restricted to giving off oxygen and water. Leaves at the
same time carry out the most highly developed cleansing and purification
functions. The cleaning tools we regularly use in our daily lives,
are produced and set in operation as the result of long studies
by experts, and after the expenditure of a lot of effort and money.
These need considerable technical support and maintenance, both
during and after use. And after production these things can develop
a number of problems. In addition, problems or defects which can
arise on a daily basis, and the necessary staff and the need for
other tools, and renewals where necessary, can all mean a great
many more processes.
As we have seen, there are hundreds of details to consider,
even in a small piece of cleaning equipment, whereas plants do the
same job as these tools, in return for just sunlight and water,
and perform the same cleaning service with the guarantee of greater
efficiency. And they also give rise to no waste product problem,
because the waste product they give off after cleaning the air is
oxygen, which all living creatures need!
Tree leaves possess tiny filters, which catch pollutants
in the air. There are thousands of tiny hairs and pores, invisible
to the naked eye, on the surface of a leaf. The individual pores
trap pollutants in the air and send them to other parts of the plant
to be absorbed. When it rains, these substances are washed to the
ground. These structures on the surfaces of leaves are only of the
thickness of a film: but when one considers that there are millions
of leaves in the world, it becomes clear that the amount of pollutants
trapped by leaves is not to be underestimated. For example, a 100-year-old
beech tree has about 500,000 leaves. The amount caught by these
leaves is more than one might guess. About a thousand square metres
of plane trees can trap 3.5 tons, and pine trees 2.5 tons of pollutants.
These materials then fall to the ground with the first rain. The
air in a forest two kilometres from a settlement area is some 70
percent cleaner than in the settlement area. Even in winter, when
trees lose their leaves, they still filter out 60 percent of the
dust in the air.
Trees can trap dust weighing five to 10 times more than
their leaves: bacteria levels in an area with trees is considerably
less than in one with no trees.46
These are very important figures.
Each thing that happens in leaves can be described as
an individual miracle. These systems in green leaves, in the superb
planning as in a microscopic factory, are proof of the creation
of God, the Lord of all the worlds, and have come down to our day
after hundreds of thousands of years, in the same perfect state,
with no changes and no defects.
The Falling Leaves: Something We Have All Seen
Sunlight is very important for plants, and particularly
for leaves, where food is produced. With the approach of winter,
the air grows colder and the days shorter, and less light reaches
the earth from the sun. This reduction causes changes in plants,
and the aging process in leaves, or leaf fall, begins.
trees lose their leaves, they begin to absorb all the nourishing
substances in the leaves. Their aim is to prevent substances such
as potassium, phosphate, and nitrate from disappearing with the
falling leaves. These substances are directed through the pipelines
that run through the layers of bark and the centre of the trunk.
The collection of these substances in the xylem makes it easier
for them to be digested by the tree.
Trees have to shed their leaves, because in cold weather,
the water in the soil increasingly solidifies and becomes harder
to absorb. But the perspiration in the leaves continues, despite
the cold weather. A leaf which continues to perspire at a time
when there is less water starts to become a burden on the plant.
In any case the cells in the leaf would freeze and break up in
the cold days of winter. For which reason the tree acts early
and frees itself of its leaves before winter arrives, and in this
way its limited water reserves will not be wasted.47
This leaf fall, which looks like a purely physical process,
actually comes about as the result of a sequence of chemical events.
In the cells in the palm of the leaf are pigments, called
phytochromes, which are sensitive to light and give colour to plants.
It is these molecules which allow the tree to realise that the nights
are growing longer and that less light is reaching the leaves. When
phytochromes sense this change they cause various changes within
the leaf, and begin the leaf's aging programme.
One of the first signs of leaf aging is that the cells
in the palm of the leaf begin to produce ethylene. The gas ethylene
begins to destroy the chlorophyll which gives the leaf its green
colour, in other words the tree withdraws the chlorophyll from
the leaves. Ethylene gas also prevents the production of auxine,
a growth hormone which delays the falling of the leaf. Together
with the loss of chlorophyll, the leaf also starts to receive
less energy from the sun, and produces less sugar. Furthermore,
carotenoid, which have hitherto been suppressed and which give
the leaf its rich colour, reveal themselves and in this way the
leaf begins to change colour.48
A short while later, ethylene has spread to every part
of the leaf, and when it reaches the leaf stalk, small cells there
start to swell up and give rise to an increase in tension in the
stalk. The number of cells in that part of the stalk which joins
onto the trunk increases, and they begin to produce special enzymes.
First of all, cellulase enzymes tear apart the membranes formed
from cellulose, then pectinase enzymes tear apart the pectin layer
which binds the cells to one another. The leaf can no longer bear
this rising tension and starts to split, from the outer part of
the stalk in.
These processes we have been describing so far may
be described as the ceasing of food production and the leaf's
starting to split off from the stalk. Rapid changes go on around
the developing split, and the cells immediately begin to produce
suberin. This substance slowly settles over the cellulose wall
and strengthens it. All these cells leave behind them a large
gap replacing the fungus layer, and die.49
What has been described so far
shows that a string of interlinked events is necessary for just
one leaf to fall. Phytochromes' determining that there is a reduction
in sunlight, all the enzymes necessary to the falling of the leaf
moving into action at the appropriate time, the cells beginning
to produce suberin just at the place where the stalk will break
off: it is clear what an extraordinary chain of events it takes
for a leaf to detach itself. "Chance" cannot be offered as the explanation
of this series of processes, all planned and following one another
in perfect order. The leaf fall plan functions in a perfect manner.
Before the leaf is completely separated from the trunk,
it no longer receives any water from the transport tubes, for which
reason its grip on the place it is attached to grows progressively
weaker. To break the leaf stalk, it will be enough for a moderate
wind to blow.
In the dead leaf which falls to the soil are food substances
that fungi and bacteria can make use of. These food substances undergo
changes brought about by micro-organisms and become mixed with the
soil. Trees can take these substances up again from the soil by
their roots as nutriments.
34. John King, Reaching for The Sun, 1997, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, p.18
35. John King, Reaching for The Sun, 1997, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge, p.24
38. Eldra Pearl Solomn, Linda R. Berg, Diana
W. Martin, Claude Villee, Biology, Saunders College Publishing,
39. George Greenstein, The Symbiotic Universe,
40. George Greenstein, The Symbiotic Universe,
41. Prof. Dr. Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim
(Inheritance and Evolution), Ankara, Meteksan Yayinlari, p.80
42. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi (Science and Technology
Journal), September 1991, p.38
43. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi (Science and Technology
Journal), September 1991, p.38
44. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi (Science and Technology
Journal), May 1985, p.9
45. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi (Science and Technology
Journal), September 1991, p.39
46. Bilim ve Teknik Dergisi (Science and Technology
Journal), August 1998, p.92
47. Lathiere, S. Science & Vie Junior, November
48. Lathiere, S. Science & Vie Junior, November
49. Malcolm Wilkins, Plantwatching, New York,
Facts on File Publications, 1988, p.171